Advanced Animation Control in GameMaker Studio 2 – Method 1

Let’s say that you have a sprite with a complex animation (i.e. variable frame rate). As you can see from the following image, each frame will play at a specific time (I use a simple Photoshop script to export the frames, I’ll write an article about it later).

This is the folder’s content, exported from Photoshop. File naming scheme is important.

Continue reading Advanced Animation Control in GameMaker Studio 2 – Method 1

Kren devlog #3 – basic metroidvania planning

A well developed metroidvania game should start with a solid planning phase. One of the first things to figure out is the character movement. I’m not talking about physical variables such as speed, friction and acceleration. I’m talking about figuring out what are the movements we want the Player to be able to execute during the game.

Example: crouching.

Can the character crouch? If so, should it crouch only when standing still? Can the character crouch in mid air or does it simply aim downward? Is it possible to walk while being in the crouching position?

These are serious design considerations that should be carefully planned and addressed well in advance as they define the feeling of the game. The player will act and react based on what movements are available. It’s the absolute first response to player’s inputs.

Crouching: Metroid Zero Mission vs Axiom Verge.

In both games, you can crouch. But while in Metroid you stay in that position even if you let go of the down key/button, in Axiom Verge you get up as soon as you let go of the key/button.

Also, while in Axiom Verge you can walk while being in the crouching state, you cannot do so in Metroid Zero Mission. Yet if you press the down key again, you morph into a ball.

The mechanics are different and so is the gameplay. Plan carefully what you intend to create and plan it well in advance. If you can, plan it all out even before any test level you might be tempted to sketch.

It will greatly simplify the overall development cycle (i.e. you won’t be rewriting big chunks of core mechanics code again and again, risking to break previous works).

Choosing the right resolution for a 2D Platformer

In this post I'll try to write down the thinking process I made when I chose to develop Kren at a 384x216 sceen resolution.

Tiles

Everything starts with the tiles. If you make tiles your measurement unit, you're going to be able to simplify the visualization process. I made this kind of reasoning: how many 16px square tiles do I want displayed vertically?

Can you count the tiles? (hint: it's 15x10)
Can you count the tiles? (hint: it's 15x10)

I wanted to be able to show at least 10 tiles. Which then I realized was a pretty low number for a Desktop game. That meant having a vertical resolution of 160px. That was the resolution of Metroid Zero Mission, on a Game Boy Advance. Granted, it looked great even on an emulator, on a Desktop PC... but... did I really want to go with that little number of tiles? Let's look at how others approached the problem...

This is what the player sees on the monitor. Notice the small character and the whole room is in the view.
This is what the player sees on the monitor in Axiom Verge. Notice the small character. Also the whole room is in the view.

Axiom Verge, a more modern desktop platformer, is displaying almost 17 tiles vertically, at a vertical resolution of 270px. So I had to stop and ponder a little. Was it enough? Was it too much?

Too much indeed. Axiom Verge displays gigantic environments around one of the smallest player character I've ever seen. The player's height to screen height ratio is absurd. But it works, for that game.

I wanted to keep a more claustrophobic feeling. Given I didn't want to mess with tile size, I had to display less tiles. Simply by reducing the resolution.

Aspect Ratio

Metroid Zero Mission has a resolution of 240x160. It's a 3:2 aspect ratio and it's not what most computers use today (or even back in the days). In fact the 16:9 aspect ratio is now almost a universal standard. Or at least you can find it in most of the TV sets, desktops and notebooks you see around.

Back to Axiom Verge. It's 16:9, which is great. But I already chose not to go with a resolution as high as 480x270 because I want less tiles on the screen.

Don't get me wrong. If you want to be able to display a great number of 16x16 tiles on the screen, 480x270 is a really great option. I would advise you go with that resolution! It's 1/16th the pixel area of a Full HD monitor. Which means it scales pretty well without pixel interpolation artifacts (you multiply 480 and 270 by 4 and you get the 1920x1080 Full HD resolution).

Next, I looked at the closest 16:9 resolution available with almost the same vertical resolution as the Game Boy Advance: 288x162.

I made a few tests at this resolution and even though I liked it (a lot), it doesn't scale well. There's no easy way to scale the 288x162 resolution to perfectly fit a 1920x1080 monitor. That means problems. Also, even though I liked the effect, it really is a little bit ugly. And maybe a little too much claustrophobic, even for my game; there's barely enough space to fit 10 tiles, vertically. Given my player's height is a bit more than 2 tiles, it meant huge player (yes, you can draw a different character), really small "field of view" and ugly pixels.

The 384 x 216 Compromise

I finally found the optimal compromise resolution: 384x216. Multiply that by 5 and you get the Full HD resolution. This should avoid pixel interpolation distortions. It also allows me to display 13.5 tiles vertically. This is not that far from the Game Boy Advance look, but it sits nicely between Metroid Zero Mission and Axiom Verge.

Testing the resolution and the view size. Notice the size of the Player and the smaller visible area.
What the hell is this?! (just a fun way to test player size, resolutions and ratios). It gave me familiar elements to gauge my observations.

I don't want the player to feel small, inside gigantic environments. I want the players to feel the environment around them. Leaving him/her with little air. But not as little as in Metroid ZM on the GBA. All with a modern 16:9 look.

I found my own resolution with this process and a bit of testing. It might not be the best approach (in fact I'm sure I might have missed some other considerations) but for now it's working great. Your mileage may vary so I recommend a lot of testing.

Testing the platformer engine I’ve been working on

Still in early planning stages. Yet testing the platformer engine made in GameMaker.
Still in early planning stages. Yet testing the platformer engine I made in GameMaker.

I’ll write a longer post soon. You can watch the video on youtube with some audio effects as well.

I’m still early into the planning stages of the game. I just needed a platformer engine I can work with to build the game. It’s going to be a Metroidvania type of game.

More on that later.